Natural Psychology
by Stephen W. Spiegel

Steve Spiegel

Natural Psychology explains human psychology including mental distress with elemental neuroscience. The history of modern psychology provides valuable insights that promote a unified, comprehensive understanding of psychology theory. Psychology theory is founded on two competing thinking theories- neo-rationalism and associationism; unfortunately, psychologists migrated to neo-rationalism rather than integrating the two theories. Associationists founded psychology together with rationalists; they advocated a thinking theory of associationism. This is an important, valuable legacy of classical British empiricism and ancient Greek philosophy. Unfortunately, psychology theory changed focus from thinking theory to behaviorism before neuroscience developed because basic empirical neuroscience explains the foundation of rational consciousness (and all thinking) as a function of associative thinking. Natural Psychology is an elegant, parsimonious new paradigm.

I am an independent natural scientist and theoretical neuroscientist. My experiences with mental distress initiated an extended investigation into natural human suffering and the pseudoscience of the medical model of mental distress.